This is very well done. I like the way you worked together and I like the short answers at the bottom. -Mrs. Raley

Jordyn-Hey guys. Once everyone is done with their pages, do you think we should put it all onto the home page to make studying easier? We don't have to, it's just a sugestion. And if your computer is underling some words as a link just ignore it if something weird pops up. Mine's underlining "studying" and "eating" I don't know why.

Michaella- someone may want to check my answer for #2, I'm not entirely sure if its right... and Jordyn, I think that sounds like a good idea & will be easier to study from. :D
Paige- I agree with Jordyn, I'm not sure why they aren't all on here to begin with anyways. Who's doing 21 and 22?
Brendan-I'm working on it...We really should move everything onto the front page so its one cohesive document. You know?


Midterm Exam Review: Honors Biology
Exam Date: January 19, 2010


Understand the work of a scientist. Know the following:

- Hypothesis - A proposed explanation for an observation or a possible answer to a scientific question.
- Observations - Information obtained through the senses, often including measurements.
- Experiment - A repeatable procedure that is used to test a hypothesis.
- Conclusion - After going through an experiment, it is the answer to the hypothesis.
- Analysis - The results of an experiment, usually written.
- Fact - Something known to exist or to happen.
- Theory - A well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations.
- Inference - A logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.
external image KD-Scientist-GS72.gif
external image KD-Scientist-GS72.gif


2. Know the characteristics of living things.

1) Living things are made of cells.
2) Living things obtain and use materials and energy.
3) Living things grow and develop.
4) Living things reproduce.
5) Living things have DNA.
6) Living things respond to their environment.
7) Living things maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis).
8) Living things evolve.
external image bigbord1208.jpg
external image bigbord1208.jpg


3. Understand the parts of a microscope and how they work.

1) Eyepiece - Contains a magnifying lens. Magnification = (10x)
2) Nose Piece - Holds the objective lenses and can be rotated to change the magnification.
3) Objective Lenses - Provides magnification of low (4x) power, medium (10x) power, and high (40x). Using the nose piece, you can change the magnification. With the eyepiece magnification, magnification: low (40x) magnification, medium (100x) magnification, and high (400x) magnification.
4) Stage Clips - Holds the slide being observed in place.
5) Stage - Supports the slide being oberved.

6) Light Source - Provides light so that the the slide can be observed.
7) Base - Supports the microscope.
8) Diaphragm - Regulates the amount of light to be let through the slide and into the eyepiece. More or less light makes there be different shading to the image on the slide.
9) Fine Adjustment Knob - The small knob that sharpens the image on the slide.
10) Coarse Adjustment Knob - The larger knob that focuses the image on the slide.
11) Arm - Supports the body tube.
12) Body Tube - Maintains the proper distance between the eyepiece and the objectives.

external image micro.gif
external image micro.gif

Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane. Make sure to include and explanation of what and how things move in and out of the cell.
The cell membrane is the tin, flexible barrier that regulates what enters what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support. The composition of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called a lipid bilayer. The lipid bilayer gives the cell membrane its flexibility and its strength. In addition to lipids, most cell membranes contain protein molecules embedded in them. These proteins are what regulate what moves in and out of the cell. Different proteins allow different materials to be let in and out of the cell. During facilitated diffusion, molecules that cannot diffuse across the cell membrane instead move through these proteins. Diffusion is another way for materials to move in and out. Diffusion is a process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated. Because diffusion depends upon random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without requiring the cell to use energy. A different type of diffusion is osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane, like a lipid bilayer.



4) Safety Features of the Biology Lab:
  • No Drinking or Eating in the Biology Lab (Only H2O)
  • Wear gloves
  • Wear goggles
  • Wear an apron
  • Do not leave a burner unattended
  • Dispose of chemicals, glass, ect. in the proper manner
  • Clean the lab station and any tools used after the experiment
external image goggles.jpg
5) The Elements and Compounds in Living Things
  • All living organisms are composed of cells.
    • Carbon Compounds
      • Life as we know it is carbon based. Therefore, most of the compounds you are made of contain the element carbon.
      • Carbon compounds are classified into 4 groups: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
        • Carbohydrates
          • Energy-rich compounds made from carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
          • Are used to store energy.
          • Classified as sugars and starches.
            • Sugars
              • Simple molecules that are smaller than starches
              • Ex: Gluecose
            • Starches
              • Are very large and consist of many sugar molecules combined
              • Ex: Rice, potatoes and wheat are plant starches
        • Lipids
          • Fats, oils and waxes
          • Made by cells to store energy for long periods of time
          • Ex: Cholesterol
            • Makes up part of the outer membrane of cells
            • Too much cholesterol can lead to fat deposites on blood vessels which may lead to coronary artery disease
        • Proteins
          • Very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
          • Animals parts such as hair, fingernails, muscle and skin contain protein
          • Ex: Hemoglobin
            • A protein in your blood that carries oxygen to your cells
          • Enzymes
            • A type of protein used to speed up chemical reactions.
          • Amino Acids
            • Proteins are made of amino acids
            • There are 20 amino acids used by cells to make proteins
        • Nucleic Acids
          • Compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides.
            • Nucleotides are made from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
            • Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule, a phosphate molecule, and a base molecule
          • DNA
            • The nucleic acid that contains the information needed to make all of their proteins
6.)Carbohydrates! Lipids! Proteins! Nucleic Acids!

Carbohydrates provide the raw fuel for cellular energy production!
Monosaccharids! -examples!

  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Galactose
Deoxyribose and Ribose!
  • Sucrose
  • Lactose
  • Maltose
Polysaccharides!
  • Starch
  • Cellulose
  • Glycogen
Lipids are organic molecules that are insoluble in water.
examples
  • Neutral Fats
  • Phospholipids
  • Cholesterol
Proteins make up 10% to 30% of cell mass. Proteins are made up of 20 common building blocks called amino acids.
external image 542px-Myoglobin.png
external image 542px-Myoglobin.png

examples
  • Enzymes
  • Blood Proteins
  • Hemoglobin
  • Antibodies
Nucleic Acids: There are two kinds of nucleic acids, Ribonucleic acid (RNA), and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Nucleic Acids store genetic and hereditary information for the body.
external image dna_rgb.gif
external image dna_rgb.gif
7) Differences Between Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides with Examples of Each:
  • Monosaccharide- The simplest form of carbohydrate
    • Gluecose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
external image glcnac.gif
  • Disaccharide- A carbohydrate composed of 2 monosaccharides
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
    • Maltose
external image Disaccharide.gif
  • Polysaccharide- A complex carbohydrate composed of a chain of monosaccharides
    • Starch
    • Cellulose
    • Gylcogen

external image astrag3.gif

8 ) Lipids -
Functions -
  • stores energy fuel
  • insulates body tissue
  • protects organs
  • make up cell membrane
  • stabilize the cell membrane
  • breaks down steriods
Examples - natural fats, phospholipids, cholesterol, waxes, steriods, horomones
Proteins -
Functions -
  • controls the rate of reaction
  • regulates all cell processes
  • forms bones / muscles
  • transport substances in / out of the cell
  • help to fight disease
Examples - amino acids, enzymes, blood proteins, antibodies, hemoglobins
Nucleic Acids -
Functions -
  • store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, info
Examples - DNA, RNA

9 ) Cell Theory -
  • All living things are composed of cells
  • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
  • New cells are produced from existing cells
Major Contributors to Cell Theory -
Robert Hooke - looked at pieces of cork and coined the term cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek - was the first to look at pond water under a microscope and look at small organisms called "amimicules" ; discovered bacteria
Matthias Schleiden - discovered that all plants were made of cells
Theodor Schwann - discovered that all animals were made of cells
Rudolph Virchow - discovered that all living cells come from other living cells

10)
Eukaryotes: Have a nucleus.
Prokaryotes: Have no nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are often a lot smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
In common, the both have ribosomes, DNA, a cell membrane, and a cytoplasm.

11)
Animal cell:
Nucleus: Controls what enters & leaves the cell; it begins the construction of ribosomes.
Nucleolus: Small dense region inside the nucleus which begins to assemble ribosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Synthesizes lipids- steroids, cholesterol, & fats.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: the highway for synthesizing proteins.
Microtubules: Assist in the movement of particles.
Cell Membranes: Lets things such as proteins and lipids enter the cell.
Lysosomes: “deletes” old, no longer functioning organelle. Recycles old parts of the cell to be used again.
Mitochondria: The “powerhouse” of the cell. It controls cellular respiration and requires energy to function. It converts food into energy.
Golgi Apparatus: The “packaging plant” of the cell.
Cytoplasm: Holds the organelles in place. Takes up the whole inside of the cell.
Cytoskeleton: Holds the cell’s shape.
Ribosomes: Are found on the Rough ER; they synthesize the proteins.
DNA: Found in the nucleus, it contains the blueprints for the cell.
Nuclear membrane: The membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Plant Cells:
Vacuole: Holds water and creates turgor pressure. (In the stem, it allows plants to stand erect).
Chloroplasts: Collect sunlight and help with photosynthesis. Contains the green pigments.
Mitochondria: Powers the cell.
Cell Wall: The nonliving wall outside the membrane. It is stiff, made of cellulose, and provides extra shape and support for the cell.
Nucleus: Controls what enters & leaves the cell; it begins the construction of ribosomes.
Nucleolus: Small dense region inside the nucleus which begins to assemble ribosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmi Reticulum: Synthesizes lipids- steroids, cholesterol, & fats.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: the highway for synthesizing proteins.
Microtubules: Assist in the movement of particles.
Cell membrane: Lets particles such as proteins and lipids enter and leave the cell.
Cytoplasm: Holds the organelles in place; takes up the whole inside of the cell.
Ribosomes: Are found on the rough ER; they synthesize proteins.
DNA: Found in the nucleus, it contains the blueprints for the cell.
Bacteria:
Pilli: Helps the organism adhere to surfaces.
Flagella: Long whip-like structures that help the organism move.
Cell Wall: The nonliving wall outside the membrane. It is stiff, made of cellulose, and provides extra
shape and support for the cell.
Cytoplasm: The inside of the cell.
Ribisomes: Make proteins for the cell.
DNA: Contains the blueprints of the cell.

12)
Cell Membrane: Living and semi-permeable, provides shape to the cell.
Cell Wall: Tough, made of nonliving cellulose, gives the cell its shape and support.




13) Understand diffusion, osmosis, and know how they are different and similar:

Diffusion: when molecules spread from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Osmosis: when water moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Similarites: Both involve particles moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Both are a form of passive transport. Both happen to achieve equilibrium: equal distribution.

Differences: diffusion can work for different types of particles, but osmosis refers strictly to water.

Types of osmosis:
  • Isotonic: when the particle content is equal on both sides
  • Hypertonic: when water moves out of the cell.
  • Hypotonic: when water moves into the cell.


14) Know the major components of the cell membrane and what they do:
The cell membrane is up of the phospholipid bilayer.

lipidbilayer.gif
lipidbilayer.gif

hydrophilic: water loving
hydrophobic: water fearing

Within the cell membrane, there are three different types of proteins; transport,receptor, and recognition.

Transport proteins:
channel- form pores where water soluble molecules penetrate.
carrier- have binding sites that attach to molecules and carry it to the other side.
Receptor proteins:
Receptor proteins receive chemical messages (molecular triggers). They pass on this message to set off cellular responses.
Recognition proteins:
They act as identification tags and attachment sites for molecules. They recognize what type of molecule it is and take it in if its the right kind of molecule that the cell needs.

Membrane processes:

Endocytosis: takes in molecules
Exocytosis: gets rid of molecules and waste

Types of endocytosis:
Pinocytosis- a small section of membrane dips inward and makes a vessel that brings minerals into the cell. Usually takes in fluids.
Receptor mediated endocytosis- receptor proteins bind to the molecule and make a vessel that pinches off, releases the proteins, and then reconnects to the membrane again.
Phagocytosis- fuel vacuoles engulf the food molecules and take it into the cell.

15) Understand the difference between simple diffusion and active transport:

Simple diffusion: when a substance can pass through a membrane without the aid of a protein in the cell membrane. An example of a particle that can use simple diffusion is oxygen.
Active transport: when cells are moving against the concentration gradient. They need the help of a protein in the cell membrane to achieve this.

The difference?: Simple diffusion does not need help from a protein, but active transport does.


16) Review the labs that we did with blood cells and onion cells placed in distilled water and salt water:

Onions: The onion in distilled water had larger vacuoles than the onion in salt water. This showed us that water diffused into the distilled water onion, and water diffued out of the salt water onion. Why?: Osmosis is the process of when water moves from an area of high concentration to lower concentration.

Blood: We saw osmosis occuring in the blood cells that were placed in regular water and salt water. In regular water, the cells enlarged because water was diffusing into them. In salt water, the cells shrank because water was diffusing out of them.

Why water diffuses OUT in salt water: The salt makes the water have a lower concentration, make the concentration within the cell higher. In osmosis, water moves from higher to lower concentration.

Why water diffuses INTO the regular water: When there is a lot of water on the outside of the cell, it has a higher concentration, making the concentration in the cell lower.

17 ) Photosynthesis - Chloroplasts use water, light energy, and carbon dioxide to create glucose and therefore energy.
Cellular Respiration - Mitochondria use glucose to create ATP (energy) for the cell.


21.) Arthropods!
Characteristics of an Arthropod:
  • Bilateral Symmetry
  • Segmented Body
  • Hard Exoskeleton
  • Jointed Legs
  • Many pairs of limbs

Evolution of an Arthropod:
Arthropods evolved from their beginnings 500 million years ago into 5 major catagories and some arthropods like the Trilobite have gone extinct.
external image arthropods_genericancestor.gif
external image arthropods_genericancestor.gif

The Arthropod Story!

22. Cladograms!
Cladograms are a visual way of sorting out the evolution of animals. It starts with one animal and then branches off onto other with shared traits.
external image cladogram_1.gif
external image cladogram_1.gif

This cladogram shows that the perch evolved from the Hagfish where it developed jaws and the the salamander developed lungs after the Perch. It will also show the point at which species formed and what characteristics they share. You can create a cladogram with a list of animals by first figuring out their characteristics and how they differ then line them up connect the animals that come after the first one lining all the rest up by their common or uncommon characteristics.

Short Answers:

1) Compare and Contrast Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells are both similar in some ways as well as different. The main difference between the two types of cells is the fact that Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus while Prokaryotic cells do not. Another difference is that Prokaryotic cells are half the size of Eukaryotic cells. These two cells may have a couple differences, but they have more similarities. Both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells have ribosomes, cytoplasm, a cell membrane and contain DNA.

2) Describe the importance of cell organelles to the function of the cell and the creation of proteins.
Each and every cell organelle is important to the cell. The nucleus is the brain of the cell which controls everything. The Golgi Apparatus packages particles off to leave the cell. The cell membrane allows particles to enter. The Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum synthesizes fats and lipids, while the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum acts as a highway for the ribosomes to synthesize proteins. The process in creating proteins begins in the ribosomes, which are made in the nucleolus in the nucleus. The ribosomes leave the nucleolus and synthesize the proteins on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.

3) Describe the structure and function of the components of the cell membrane. Make sure to include and explanation of what/how things move in and out of the cell.

4) Describe the importance of cell membrane in regulating homeostasis for the cell.

5) Describe the overall composition and importance of organic molecules including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Lipids are made up of fats, oils and waxes. They are made by the cells to store energy for long periods of time and they are found in the outer layer of the cell membrane. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and are used by the body to store energy. They are classified as starches and sugars. Proteins are very large molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur. Proteins are found in muscles, hair, and fingernails to name a few places. Nucleic acids are made from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur. They are used to store hereditary and genetic information.

6) Describe Darwin's Theory of Evolution. How was it formulated and what types of evidence did he use to support his theory?
Darwin's theory of evolution states that all living things change over time. He claimed that organisms all have a common ancestor, and the more closely related the animal, the more recent of a common ancestor. Animals change over time to become more suited to the environment they live in. Natural selection describes the process of how an organism gains a trait over time that allows them to survive better in their environment. After a while, these different traits become an inherited characteristic that every animal of that species has. Darwin used the fossil record, geographic distribution, homologous body structures, and embryology to prove his theory of evolution.